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微信开发笔记-调用自定义分享接口

引言:

  工作中开发微信网站,简称微网站。由于微网站的分享内容是系统自动选取的当前网址,客户需要改变分享的内容,即点击屏幕右上角的分享按钮,选择发送给朋友和发送到朋友圈,其中的内容和图片需要自定义。于是查找文档微信JS-SDK说明文档一文和网站众多高手的经验,大体知道了调用的步骤,但是具体如何调用才能成功却是不了解的。经过一番试验,终于成功调用发送朋友和发送到朋友圈两个接口,此处记录调用的具体过程。

 

步骤一:引用js文件。

在需要调用JS接口的页面引入如下JS文件,(支持https):http://res.wx.qq.com/open/js/jweixin-1.0.0.js

 

步骤二:通过config接口注入权限验证配置

wx.config({
    debug: true, // 开启调试模式,调用的所有api的返回值会在客户端alert出来,若要查看传入的参数,可以在pc端打开,参数信息会通过log打出,仅在pc端时才会打印。
    appId: '', // 必填,公众号的唯一标识
    timestamp: , // 必填,生成签名的时间戳
    nonceStr: '', // 必填,生成签名的随机串
    signature: '',// 必填,签名,见附录1
    jsApiList: [] // 必填,需要使用的JS接口列表,所有JS接口列表见附录2
});

网上众多网友也是这样写的,但是具体如果配却谈之甚少,接下来介绍本文是如何调用的。

debug和appId,都不用说,很简单。

timespan生成签名的时间戳:

/// <summary>
        /// 生成时间戳
        /// 从 1970 年 1 月 1 日 00:00:00 至今的秒数,即当前的时间,且最终需要转换为字符串形式
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public string getTimestamp()
        {
            TimeSpan ts = DateTime.UtcNow - new DateTime(1970, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0);
            return Convert.ToInt64(ts.TotalSeconds).ToString();
        }

 

nonceStr生成签名的随机串:

/// <summary>
        /// 生成随机字符串
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public string getNoncestr()
        {
            Random random = new Random();
            return MD5Util.GetMD5(random.Next(1000).ToString(), "GBK");
        }
/// <summary>
    /// MD5Util 的摘要说明。
    /// </summary>
    public class MD5Util
    {
        public MD5Util()
        {
            //
            // TODO: 在此处添加构造函数逻辑
            //
        }

        /** 获取大写的MD5签名结果 */
        public static string GetMD5(string encypStr, string charset)
        {
            string retStr;
            MD5CryptoServiceProvider m5 = new MD5CryptoServiceProvider();

            //创建md5对象
            byte[] inputBye;
            byte[] outputBye;

            //使用GB2312编码方式把字符串转化为字节数组.
            try
            {
                inputBye = Encoding.GetEncoding(charset).GetBytes(encypStr);
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                inputBye = Encoding.GetEncoding("GB2312").GetBytes(encypStr);
            }
            outputBye = m5.ComputeHash(inputBye);

            retStr = System.BitConverter.ToString(outputBye);
            retStr = retStr.Replace("-", "").ToUpper();
            return retStr;
        }
    }
View Code

 

singature签名的生成比较麻烦。

首先生成获取access_token(有效期7200秒,开发者必须在自己的服务全局缓存access_token

public string Getaccesstoken()
        {
            string appid = System.Configuration.ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["WXZjAppID"].ToString();
            string secret = System.Configuration.ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["WXZjAppSecret"].ToString();
            string urljson = "https://api.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/token?grant_type=client_credential&appid=" + appid + "&secret=" + secret;
            string strjson = "";
            UTF8Encoding encoding = new UTF8Encoding();
            HttpWebRequest myRequest =
            (HttpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create(urljson);
            myRequest.Method = "GET";
            myRequest.ContentType = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded";
            HttpWebResponse response;
            Stream responseStream;
            StreamReader reader;
            string srcString;
            response = myRequest.GetResponse() as HttpWebResponse;
            responseStream = response.GetResponseStream();
            reader = new System.IO.StreamReader(responseStream, Encoding.UTF8);
            srcString = reader.ReadToEnd();
            reader.Close();
            if (srcString.Contains("access_token"))
            {
                //CommonJsonModel model = new CommonJsonModel(srcString);
                HP.CPS.BLL.WeiXin.CommonJsonModel model = new BLL.WeiXin.CommonJsonModel(srcString);
                strjson = model.GetValue("access_token");
                Session["access_tokenzj"] = strjson;
            }
            return strjson;
        }
public class CommonJsonModelAnalyzer
    {
        protected string _GetKey(string rawjson)
        {
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(rawjson))
                return rawjson;
            rawjson = rawjson.Trim();
            string[] jsons = rawjson.Split(new char[] { ':' });
            if (jsons.Length < 2)
                return rawjson;
            return jsons[0].Replace("\"", "").Trim();
        }
        protected string _GetValue(string rawjson)
        {
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(rawjson))
                return rawjson;
            rawjson = rawjson.Trim();
            string[] jsons = rawjson.Split(new char[] { ':' }, StringSplitOptions.RemoveEmptyEntries);
            if (jsons.Length < 2)
                return rawjson;
            StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder();
            for (int i = 1; i < jsons.Length; i++)
            {
                builder.Append(jsons[i]);
                builder.Append(":");
            }
            if (builder.Length > 0)
                builder.Remove(builder.Length - 1, 1);
            string value = builder.ToString();
            if (value.StartsWith("\""))
                value = value.Substring(1);
            if (value.EndsWith("\""))
                value = value.Substring(0, value.Length - 1);
            return value;
        }
        protected List<string> _GetCollection(string rawjson)
        {
            //[{},{}]
            List<string> list = new List<string>();
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(rawjson))
                return list;
            rawjson = rawjson.Trim();
            StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder();
            int nestlevel = -1;
            int mnestlevel = -1;
            for (int i = 0; i < rawjson.Length; i++)
            {
                if (i == 0)
                    continue;
                else if (i == rawjson.Length - 1)
                    continue;
                char jsonchar = rawjson[i];
                if (jsonchar == '{')
                {
                    nestlevel++;
                }
                if (jsonchar == '}')
                {
                    nestlevel--;
                }
                if (jsonchar == '[')
                {
                    mnestlevel++;
                }
                if (jsonchar == ']')
                {
                    mnestlevel--;
                }
                if (jsonchar == ',' && nestlevel == -1 && mnestlevel == -1)
                {
                    list.Add(builder.ToString());
                    builder = new StringBuilder();
                }
                else
                {
                    builder.Append(jsonchar);
                }
            }
            if (builder.Length > 0)
                list.Add(builder.ToString());
            return list;
        }
    }

    public class CommonJsonModel : CommonJsonModelAnalyzer
    {
        private string rawjson;
        private bool isValue = false;
        private bool isModel = false;
        private bool isCollection = false;
        public CommonJsonModel(string rawjson)
        {
            this.rawjson = rawjson;
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(rawjson))
                throw new Exception("missing rawjson");
            rawjson = rawjson.Trim();
            if (rawjson.StartsWith("{"))
            {
                isModel = true;
            }
            else if (rawjson.StartsWith("["))
            {
                isCollection = true;
            }
            else
            {
                isValue = true;
            }
        }
        public string Rawjson
        {
            get { return rawjson; }
        }
        public bool IsValue()
        {
            return isValue;
        }
        public bool IsValue(string key)
        {
            if (!isModel)
                return false;
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(key))
                return false;
            foreach (string subjson in base._GetCollection(this.rawjson))
            {
                CommonJsonModel model = new CommonJsonModel(subjson);
                if (!model.IsValue())
                    continue;
                if (model.Key == key)
                {
                    CommonJsonModel submodel = new CommonJsonModel(model.Value);
                    return submodel.IsValue();
                }
            }
            return false;
        }
        public bool IsModel()
        {
            return isModel;
        }
        public bool IsModel(string key)
        {
            if (!isModel)
                return false;
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(key))
                return false;
            foreach (string subjson in base._GetCollection(this.rawjson))
            {
                CommonJsonModel model = new CommonJsonModel(subjson);
                if (!model.IsValue())
                    continue;
                if (model.Key == key)
                {
                    CommonJsonModel submodel = new CommonJsonModel(model.Value);
                    return submodel.IsModel();
                }
            }
            return false;
        }
        public bool IsCollection()
        {
            return isCollection;
        }
        public bool IsCollection(string key)
        {
            if (!isModel)
                return false;
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(key))
                return false;
            foreach (string subjson in base._GetCollection(this.rawjson))
            {
                CommonJsonModel model = new CommonJsonModel(subjson);
                if (!model.IsValue())
                    continue;
                if (model.Key == key)
                {
                    CommonJsonModel submodel = new CommonJsonModel(model.Value);
                    return submodel.IsCollection();
                }
            }
            return false;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 当模型是对象,返回拥有的key
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public List<string> GetKeys()
        {
            if (!isModel)
                return null;
            List<string> list = new List<string>();
            foreach (string subjson in base._GetCollection(this.rawjson))
            {
                string key = new CommonJsonModel(subjson).Key;
                if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(key))
                    list.Add(key);
            }
            return list;
        }
        /// <summary>
        /// 当模型是对象,key对应是值,则返回key对应的值
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="key"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public string GetValue(string key)
        {
            if (!isModel)
                return null;
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(key))
                return null;
            foreach (string subjson in base._GetCollection(this.rawjson))
            {
                CommonJsonModel model = new CommonJsonModel(subjson);
                if (!model.IsValue())
                    continue;
                if (model.Key == key)
                    return model.Value;
            }
            return null;
        }
        /// <summary>
        /// 模型是对象,key对应是对象,返回key对应的对象
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="key"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public CommonJsonModel GetModel(string key)
        {
            if (!isModel)
                return null;
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(key))
                return null;
            foreach (string subjson in base._GetCollection(this.rawjson))
            {
                CommonJsonModel model = new CommonJsonModel(subjson);
                if (!model.IsValue())
                    continue;
                if (model.Key == key)
                {
                    CommonJsonModel submodel = new CommonJsonModel(model.Value);
                    if (!submodel.IsModel())
                        return null;
                    else
                        return submodel;
                }
            }
            return null;
        }
        /// <summary>
        /// 模型是对象,key对应是集合,返回集合
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="key"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public CommonJsonModel GetCollection(string key)
        {
            if (!isModel)
                return null;
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(key))
                return null;
            foreach (string subjson in base._GetCollection(this.rawjson))
            {
                CommonJsonModel model = new CommonJsonModel(subjson);
                if (!model.IsValue())
                    continue;
                if (model.Key == key)
                {
                    CommonJsonModel submodel = new CommonJsonModel(model.Value);
                    if (!submodel.IsCollection())
                        return null;
                    else
                        return submodel;
                }
            }
            return null;
        }
        /// <summary>
        /// 模型是集合,返回自身
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public List<CommonJsonModel> GetCollection()
        {
            List<CommonJsonModel> list = new List<CommonJsonModel>();
            if (IsValue())
                return list;
            foreach (string subjson in base._GetCollection(rawjson))
            {
                list.Add(new CommonJsonModel(subjson));
            }
            return list;
        }


        /// <summary>
        /// 当模型是值对象,返回key
        /// </summary>
        private string Key
        {
            get
            {
                if (IsValue())
                    return base._GetKey(rawjson);
                return null;
            }
        }
        /// <summary>
        /// 当模型是值对象,返回value
        /// </summary>
        private string Value
        {
            get
            {
                if (!IsValue())
                    return null;
                return base._GetValue(rawjson);
            }
        }
    }
View Code

 

接着获取jsapi_ticket:

用第一步拿到的access_token 采用http GET方式请求获得jsapi_ticket(有效期7200秒,开发者必须在自己的服务全局缓存jsapi_ticket

public string Getjsapi_ticket()
        {
            string accesstoken = (string)Session["access_tokenzj"];
            string urljson = "https://api.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/ticket/getticket?access_token=" + accesstoken + "&type=jsapi";
            string strjson = "";
            UTF8Encoding encoding = new UTF8Encoding();
            HttpWebRequest myRequest = (HttpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create(urljson);
            myRequest.Method = "GET";
            myRequest.ContentType = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded";
            HttpWebResponse response = myRequest.GetResponse() as HttpWebResponse;
            Stream responseStream = response.GetResponseStream();
            StreamReader reader = new System.IO.StreamReader(responseStream, Encoding.UTF8);
            string srcString = reader.ReadToEnd();
            reader.Close();
            if (srcString.Contains("ticket"))
            {
                HP.CPS.BLL.WeiXin.CommonJsonModel model = new BLL.WeiXin.CommonJsonModel(srcString);
                strjson = model.GetValue("ticket");
                Session["ticketzj"] = strjson;
            }

            return strjson;
        }

 

最后生成signature:

public string Getsignature(string nonceStr, string timespanstr)
        {
            if (Session["access_tokenzj"] == null)
            {
                Getaccesstoken();
            }
            if (Session["ticketzj"] == null)
            {
                Getjsapi_ticket();
            }

            string url = Request.Url.ToString();

            string str = "jsapi_ticket=" + (string)Session["ticketzj"] + "&noncestr=" + nonceStr +
                "&timestamp=" + timespanstr + "&url=" + url;// +"&wxref=mp.weixin.qq.com";
            string singature = SHA1Util.getSha1(str);
            string ss = singature;
            return ss;
        }
class SHA1Util
    {
        public static String getSha1(String str)
        {
            //建立SHA1对象
            SHA1 sha = new SHA1CryptoServiceProvider();
            //将mystr转换成byte[] 
            ASCIIEncoding enc = new ASCIIEncoding();
            byte[] dataToHash = enc.GetBytes(str);
            //Hash运算
            byte[] dataHashed = sha.ComputeHash(dataToHash);
            //将运算结果转换成string
            string hash = BitConverter.ToString(dataHashed).Replace("-", "");
            return hash;
        }
    }
View Code

 

本文调用实例:

<script type="text/javascript">
        wx.config({
            debug: false,
            appId: '<%=corpid %>',
            timestamp: <%=timestamp%>,
            nonceStr: '<%=nonceStr%>',
            signature: '<%=signature %>',
            jsApiList: ['onMenuShareTimeline', 'onMenuShareAppMessage']
        });
    </script>

 

步骤三:调用接口

在进行完第二步的调用后,步骤三就显得非常轻巧了。

wx.ready(function(){
    // config信息验证后会执行ready方法,所有接口调用都必须在config接口获得结果之后,config是一个客户端的异步操作,所以如果需要在页面加载时就调用相关接口,则须把相关接口放在ready函数中调用来确保正确执行。对于用户触发时才调用的接口,则可以直接调用,不需要放在ready函数中。
});

本文的调用实例是:
<script type="text/javascript" >
    wx.ready(function () {
        wx.onMenuShareAppMessage({
            title: '<%=shareTitle %>',
            desc: '<%=shareContent %>',
            link: '<%=currentUrl %>',
            imgUrl: '<%=shareImageUrl %>'
        });

        wx.onMenuShareTimeline({
            title: '<%=shareContent %>',
            link: '<%=currentUrl %>',
            imgUrl: '<%=shareImageUrl %>'
        });
    })     
</script>

本文基本上总结到此处。

易出现的问题:

1、检查后台是否设置:右上角公众号名称--功能设置--JS接口安全域名

2、检查代码里的appid和公众号后台的id是否一致

3、图片的调用地址是绝对路径(相对路径好像不行)。



引用文档:
微信JS-SDK说明文档

http://mp.weixin.qq.com/wiki/7/aaa137b55fb2e0456bf8dd9148dd613f.html


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