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Linux 常用命令总结一

1. linux 基础命令

who, which, basename, dirname, echo, type, hash, whatis, makewhatis, man, info, help, ls, cd,pwd, mkdir, rmdir, touch, rm, date, hwcolck, cal, shutdown, reboot, tty

1 who : Show who is logged on, print information about users who are currently logged in. 

  显示登录的用户。

2 which : Show the full path of (shell) commands

  which pwd, which shutdown

3 basename : Print name with any leading directory components removed.

  basename /usr/bin/sort , Output: sort

4 dirname : strip non-directory suffix from file name

  dirname /usr/bin/sort , Output: /usr/bin

5 命令替换

  ‘ ’ :强引用,变量不会替换;

  “ ” :若引用,变量可以替换;

  ` ` :命令应用,类似$()

6 echo : display a line of text , 回显

  echo $PATH , Output: /usr/lib64/qt-3.3/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/root/bin

  echo '$PATH' , Output: $PATH

  echo "zhu biao" , Output: zhu biao

  echo `date +%F`(echo $(date +%F)) , Output: 2016-10-26

7 type : Display information about command type

  type cd , Output: cd is a shell builtin

  type shutdown , Output: shutdown is /sbin/shutdown, 若shutdown已经执行过,将会添加到hash数据库,则:shutdown is hashed (/sbin/shutdown)

8 hash : Rember or display program loacations, 显示hash数据库,执行过的程序次数、位置。

9 whatis : 简洁描述某个命令的功能,该命令在manual文档中的章节

  whatis shutdown , Output:

            shutdown    (2)  - shut down part of a full-duplex connection
            shutdown    (3p)  - shut down socket send and receive operations
            shutdown    (8)  - bring the system down

10 makewhatis : Create the whatis datebase

11 shell command 分为内部命令和外部命令

  内部命令帮助:help command

  外部命令帮助:command --help, man command, info command

12 man : man [section] command , manual , 命令,配置文件格式,库调用等帮助文档

  [section]:

  1: User Commands
     2: System Calls
     3: C Library Functions
     4: Devices and Special Files
     5: File Formats and Conventions
     6: Games et. Al.
     7: Miscellanea
     8: System Administrations tools and Deamons

13 info : 获取在线帮助文档,使用方法类似man

14 help : shell内部命令帮助文档

  help ls

15 {a,b} : 可展开

  {a,b}/{x,y} : a/x a/y b/x b/y

  {a,b}-heburn-{x,y} : a-heburn-x a-heburn-y b-heburn-x b-heburn-y

16 ls : list directory contents

  ls /home/zhubiao

17 cd : change the shell working directory

  cd /home/zhubiao

  cd ~ : 回到用户家目录

  cd ~zhubiao : 回到用户zhubiao家目录

  cd - : 回到上一个目录

18 pwd : Print working directory

19 mkdir : make directories

  Create directories /mnt/linux/bin, /mnt/linux/sbin, /mnt/bin, /mnt/sbin 可用如下命令:

  mkdir -pv /mnt{/linux/{bin/sbin},bin,sbin}

20 rmdir : remove empty diretories

  rmdir /mnt

  rmdir -p /a/b

21 rm : remove files or directories

  rm -rf /a/b/zhubiao

22 touch : 创建文件

23 date : print or set the system date and time

  date [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss] :

    date 10262318 设定系统时间为10月26日 23:18,

    date 102623182016.33 设定系统时间为 2016-10-26 23:18:33

    date +%F , Output: 2016-10-26

    date +%T , Output: 23:18:33

24 hwclock : query or set the hadway clock (RTC)

  hwclock --set --date="102616 23:12:10"

  hwclock -s(--hctosys)

  hwclock -w(--systohc)

25 cal : Display a calendar

  cal , Output:

          October 2016   
      Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
                         1
       2  3  4  5  6  7  8
       9 10 11 12 13 14 15
      16 17 18 19 20 21 22
      23 24 25 26 27 28 29
      30 31

26 shutdown : bring the system down

  shutdown -h now

  shutdown -r +5

27 reboot : reboot, halt, poweroff - reboot or stop the system

28 ternial

  a.虚拟终端 tty#

  b.物理终端 console

  c.伪终端 pts/#


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